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2018年高考英语一轮复习语法课件专题二:代词(共46张ppt)
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上传日期:2018/10/11  
相关资源:
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2018年高考英语一轮复习语法课件专题七:非谓语动词

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该ppt共有46张ppt
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语法专题二 代词

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1.(2016·全国乙,语法填空)On my recent visit,I held a lively three-month-old twin that had been rejected by      (it) mother.?2.(2016·四川,语法填空)By that time,the panda no longer needed      (it) mother for food.?
1.its 根据后面的mother一词可知,此处用形容词性物主代词its。2.its its在此处修饰其后的名词mother,故此处用it的形容词性物主代词its做定语。

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3.(2015·课标全国Ⅰ,语法填空)A few hours before/earlier,I’d been at home in Hong Kong,with      (it) choking smog.?4.(2014·课标全国Ⅱ,语法填空)A woman on the bus shouted,“Oh dear!It’s      (I).”?
3.its 此处用形容词性物主代词修饰choking smog。its的意思是“香港的”。4.me/mine 此空根据语法可以看出,缺表语,应填代词。此处既可以指前文所提到的anyone“谁”,也可以指代“suitcase”是谁的,又因为woman用第一人称,所以填me和mine皆可。

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注意①形容词性物主代词通常用做定语,修饰名词,如:her father她的父亲。②“of(介词)+名词性物主代词(或名词所有格)”构成双重所有格,如:a friend of mine我的一个朋友。

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1.指代时间、距离、自然现象等。如:It is half past two now.现在两点半。(指时间)It is 6 miles to the nearest hospital.离最近的医院有六英里。(指距离)It is very cold in the room.房间很冷。(指温度)2.指代前面所提到过的事物、群体、想法、性别不明或性别被认为不重要的人或动物、未指明但谈话双方都明白的事情或情况。如:An average of just 18.75 cm of rain fell last year,making it the driest year since California became a state in 1850.去年平均降雨量仅18.75厘米,使得去年是加利福尼亚自1850年建州以来最干旱的一年。(it指前面所提到的情况)

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—Who’s that at the door?门口那人是谁?—It is the milkman.是送奶工。(it指代性别不明或性别被认为不重要的人)—I’ve broken a plate.我打碎了一个盘子。—It(=Breaking the plate) doesn’t matter.没关系。(it指前面所提到过的事情)

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3.it可以用做形式主语或形式宾语,而把真正的主语或宾语放在后面,真正的主语或宾语往往由从句、动词-ing形式和不定式充当。如:It is said that all of them have gone to the cinema.据说他们都去看电影了。No matter where he is,he makes it a rule to go out for a walk before breakfast.无论在哪儿,他总是习惯在早餐前出去散步。

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4.it用在不能直接跟宾语从句的动词(短语),尤其是表示好恶的动词(短语)后面,如:enjoy,like,love,dislike,hate,don’t mind,be fond of,feel like,see to后,即这些动词(短语)后面的宾语从句前要加it。如:I hate it that you leave the door open.我讨厌你把门开着。5.it的固定结构:make it;get it;see to it that;put it。如:How shall I put it?我该怎么说呢?

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1.it特指上文所提到的同一事物,它所代替的名词常由the,this,that等修饰。one泛指上文提到的同类事物中的一个,不特指,相当于a/an+单数名词;ones泛指上文提到的同类事物的复数名词;the one特指前面的可数名词单数,有时可以用that来代替(尤其是后面有后置定语时);the ones特指上文提到的复数名词,有时可以用those代替,尤其在有后置定语的情况下。that特指前面出现的单数名词或不可数名词,相当于“the+可数名词单数/不可数名词”;that 的复数形式为those,替代可数名词复数,既可指人也可指物。

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Yesterday I lost my pen and I couldn’t find it.So I had to buy one.(it指代my pen;one替代a pen)昨天我丢了钢笔而且没找到。所以我不得不再买一支。The books on the desk are better than those/the ones under the desk.(those/the ones替代the books)桌子上的书要比桌子下面的好。Few pleasure can equal that of a cool drink on a hot day.没有什么能比得上在炎热的天气里喝上一杯冷饮那样快乐。(that替代pleasure)

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2.that和one的主要区别:that既可替代可数名词单数,也可替代不可数名词,常有后置定语,一般不指人,复数形式为those;one只能替代可数名词单数,复数形式为ones。当可数名词前有形容词修饰时,只能用one,不用that。当of短语做可数名词单数的后置定语时,用that,不用one。The quality of education in this small school is better than that in some larger schools.这所规模较小的学校的教育质量比一些规模较大的学校更好。If you’re buying today’s paper from the stand,could you get one for me?如果你从摊上买今天的报纸,能给我捎一份吗?(one替代a paper 一份报纸)

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指示代词是用来指代或标记人或事物的代词,有this,that,these,those。this,that是单数,these,those是复数。指示代词可以在句中做主语、宾语、表语和定语等。This is what I want to say.这就是我想要说的。That was twenty years ago.那是二十年前的事了。These are not my books.这些不是我的书。Those are her papers.那些是她的试卷。

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1.both(两者都),either(两者中的任何一个),neither(两者都不)。以上这些词使用范围为两者。John and Mary have both won the prizes.约翰和玛丽都得了奖。The research group produced two reports based on the survey,but neither contained any useful suggestions.这个调查组在调查的基础上提供了两份报告,但是没有一份包含有用的建议。I’ve lived in New York and Chicago,but don’t like either of them very much.我曾经在纽约和芝加哥居住过,但是这两个城市我都不是很喜欢。

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2.both与复数名词连用,either与单数名词连用。There are flowers on both sides of the street.街道两旁都有花。There are flowers on either side of the street.街道的每一边都有花。

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3.all(所有的,全部的人或物),any(任何一个),none(都不)。以上词使用范围为三者或三者以上。All the students in my class like our teachers.我们班的所有学生都喜欢我们的老师。Although Rosemary had suffered from a serious illness for years,she lost none of her enthusiasm for life.虽然罗斯玛丽患上这种严重的疾病多年,但是她一点儿也没有失去对生活的热情。4.each可指两者,也可指两者以上。They each have a car.他们都有车。

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1.no不能单独使用,相当于not a或not any,做定语修饰可数名词或不可数名词。He has no worry about safety.他一点也不为安全担心。2.none既可以指人,也可以指物,侧重指三者或三者以上的人或物,可与介词of连用,用于回答how many/much引导的疑问句。—How many people are there in the room?房间里有多少人?—None.没有人。

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3.nobody指人,用于回答who引导的疑问句;nothing指物,用于回答what引导的疑问句。The meeting will be held in September,but nobody knows the date for sure.这次会议将在9月举行,但没人知道确切的日期。—What are you doing?你正在做什么?—Nothing.没干什么。

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1.another既可以单独使用,也可以用于单数名词前,泛指三者或三者以上中的“另外一个人或物”。还可以用于“another+数词+复数名词”中,表示“再,又”。Recycling is one way to protect the environment;reusing is another.循环利用是保护环境的一种方式,重新利用是另一种方式。You have to wait for another three weeks.你还得等待三周。2.other 可用做形容词,意思为“别的,其他的”,泛指“其他的(人或物)”。You can ask other people to help you.你可以让其他人帮你。

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3.the other指两个人或物中的一个,不能用another,此时other为代词。The old man has two sons.One is a teacher;the other is a doctor.这位老人有两个儿子。一个是老师,另一个是医生。4.the other 后可接可数名词单数也可接可数名词复数,不接不可数名词。此时other为形容词。On the other side of the street,there is a tall tree.在街道的另一边,有一棵高树。He is taller than the other students in his class.他比班里其他学生都高。

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5.others 是other的复数形式,泛指“另外几个;其他的”。others不能做定语,表示复数意义,相当于“other+复数名词”;the others相当于“the other+复数名词”,指剩下的全部。In some countries,people eat with chopsticks,while in others,knives and forks.在一些国家里,人们用筷子吃饭,而在另一些国家里,人们用刀子和叉子。Two students in our class failed,but all the others passed the exam.班里两个学生没及格,但其他学生全部通过了考试。

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everyone/everybody意为“每个人”;someone/somebody意为“某人,有人”,其特殊含义是“有价值的人或者重要的人”;anybody意为“任何人,无论谁”;nobody意为“没有人,无人,谁也不”。everything意为“每件事;所有事物”;something意为“某事/物”;其特殊含义是“大致;……左右;有价值的人或者重要的人或者事物”;anything意为“任何事物”;nothing意为“没有”。You can ask anyone for help.Everyone here is willing to lend you a hand.你可以向任何人求助。这儿的每个人都愿意帮助你。Somebody has parked his car right in front of mine.有人将车子正好停在我的车子前面。

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He was such a fast talker that nobody could understand him.他讲话很快,没有人能听懂。—Have you figured out how much the trip will cost?你算出这次旅程会花多少钱了吗?—$4,000,or something like that.四千美元,或者大约那样的数目。A smile costs nothing,but gives much.微笑花费不了什么,却给予很多。

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常见搭配:nothing but只不过anything but绝不;根本不something of有点儿……;在某种程度上是nothing to do with和……没关系for nothing免费;白白地;白费;无缘无故地

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all,both,everyone,everybody,everything以及“every+名词”都表示全部肯定。none,no one,nobody,nothing,neither,not any 以及“no+名词”均表示全部否定;但当not 与表示全部肯定的不定代词连用时,不管not的位置在其前还是其后,都表示部分否定。None of them smoke.他们都不吸烟。Such a person can’t be found everywhere.(部分否定)这种人并非随处可见。

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Ⅰ.单句填空1.After what seemed to be a hundred years,I found my audience applauding—I made      !(2016·河北“五个一名校联盟”质量监测)?2.To be a competitor,      must be over 18.(2016·重庆第二次诊断)?
1.it make it意为“获得成功”,为固定搭配,故用代词it。2.one/you 句子缺少主语,one或you都可以用于泛指人。句意:如果想成为参赛选手,你必须超过18岁。

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3.All in all,we students should behave        (we) and keep away from violence.(2016·福建五校毕业班统考)?4.They are calmer and      (they) mood improves.(2016·石家庄一模)?5.Taxis are certainly the most convenient means of transport,as      requires little effort to raise your arm to call a cab.(2016·重庆一诊)?
3.ourselves behave oneself为固定搭配,意为“举止规矩有礼,检点”,故用反身代词。根据主语we可知,空处应用ourselves。4.their 要用形容词性物主代词修饰名词mood,根据前面的代词they可知这里用their。5.it 此处的it为形式主语,真正的主语是后面的to raise your arm to call a cab。

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6.I don’t like science fiction novels much.When you’ve read      ,you’ve read them all.?7.—Would you like tea or coffee?—      .I really don’t mind.?8.The couple had one biological child and adopted three       .?
6.one 此处用one泛指前面提到的同类事物中的一个。7.Either 句意:——你想喝茶还是喝咖啡?——什么都可以,我真的不介意。either表示两者中任意一个。注意首字母要大写。8.others others是other的复数形式,表示泛指,本句意为“这对夫妇有一个亲生孩子,领养了三个孩子”。

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9.Mark whispered so softly that      but Julie heard him.?10.They had gone to a great deal of expense for        .?11.This result is only slightly different from      obtained in the US.?12.That first hot dog tasted so good that I’d like       .?
9.none 此处none表示“没有人”,强调数量为零。10.nothing 根据句意“他们白白牺牲了很多东西”可知,应用nothing,意为“没有东西”。11.that that代替前面的this result,表示特指。that往往用来指代上文提到的事物,this指下文要陈述的事物。12.another 此处用another泛指同类的事物,指“再来一个热狗”。

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13.The cells of the body,especially       of the brain,can live only minutes without circulating blood.?14.If you don’t build your dream,someone will hire you to build       (they).?
13.those those用来替代前面的the cells,特指这些细胞,因此用复数形式。14.theirs 句意:如果你不构建自己的梦想,那么就会有人雇用你去构建他们的梦想。本空在句中做build的宾语,与前面的build your dream呼应,表示build their dreams,因此应用名词性物主代词theirs代替their dreams。

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15.“One time I asked her,why is      (me) listening comprehension so bad?” Mr.Zuckerberg said.?
15.my 句意:扎克伯格先生说:“有一次,我问她,为什么我的听力理解如此差?”此处修饰listening comprehension,故用my。

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Ⅱ.单句改错1.When I was in high school,most of my friends had a bicycle.I hoped I could also have it.(2016·四川绵阳第二次诊断)?2.I’ve learnt from the notice that you’re looking for an English editor for us school paper.(2016·石家庄质检二)?
1.it→one 此处指代a bicycle,所以用one。one用来代替上文提到的单数可数名词,表示泛指。2.us→our 此处做定语修饰school paper,表示“我们学校的报纸”,应用our。

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3.Gradually,I found me back,giving my speech at last.(2016·郑州第一次质检)?4.Once you get into a bad habit,you’ll find it hard to get rid of them.(2016·昆明两区七校调研)?
3.me→myself 宾语与主语为同一人,故用反身代词。4.them→it 此处代指a bad habit,故用it。

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5.I decided to tell my parents it was the fault of the cat for fear that she should punish me.(2016·山西第二次四校联考)?6.I’d like to introduce Sarah to you.She is a good friend of me.(2016·湖南东部六校联考)
5.she→they 本处代指“我父母”,应用they。6.me→mine 她是“我”的一个好朋友。此处应用名词性物主代词mine,相当于my friends。

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7.That is known to us that respect for one’s parents is one of Chinese traditional moral values.(2016·长春质量监测二)?8.We often think of themselves as the centre of their family.(2016·长春质量监测二)?
7.That→It It is known to us that...为固定句式,表示“我们都知道,众所周知”,其中it为形式主语,that引导的从句为真正的主语,所以改为it。8.We→They 根据下文themselves和their的提示可知,应改为They。

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9.I got the news from the newspaper that you need an art editor for our magazine.(2016·兰州高三实战)?10.When none of his friends arrived,he asked them to sit at the table.(2016·贵州髙考适应性考试)?
9.our→your 根据句意“你的杂志需要一个美术编辑”可知此处指“你的”。故改为your。10.none→all 根据句意“当他所有的朋友都到了的时候”可知,此处指“三者或三者以上的所有人”,故用不定代词all。

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Ⅲ.语法填空Emily sits by her desk.She studies for an exam.Actually,she forces 1.        to study for that exam,since what she really wants to do is go outside and play soccer!?Her friend Kelly is by her window.She throws a little stone at it and then calls,“Is there 2.        home?”?
1.herself 艾米莉在强迫自己学习,因此用反身代词herself。2.anybody/anyone 此处是一般疑问句,意为“有人在家吗?”,故用anybody或anyone。

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“Yes,I am here!” Emily answers.“This is so unfair!I want to be outside with 3.      and not here with these boring booklets(小册子)!”?“Whatever you are doing with those boring booklets,you should come out and play with us!”Kelly calls back.
3.you 艾米莉和凯莉在对话,故用you指代Kelly。

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“I can’t do 4.     ,” Emily says sadly.“This exam of 5.      is tomorrow,so now I need to study for it.” She takes the stone that Kelly threw in,and sends it flying outside.Then she closes the window.She knows that everybody else has studied already,and now 6.         of them are playing outside.?
4.that 此处that指代上文Kelly给出的建议,意为“我不能那样做”。5.mine 此处在该句中做主语,由上文的this exam of可知,应该用名词性物主代词mine。6.all 由上文的everybody可知,所有人都已经复习好了,故用all指代所有人。

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“Well,” she thinks to herself,“it is my test,and I myself have to study for it.I know that Kelly wants to help me,but not this time.We can help 7.      other with other things.”?She takes another look at her two booklets.She tries to read a page of the first booklet,and then a page of the 8.        .Both are boring.“9.      ? of you is interesting!” she tells them seriously.?
7.each 句意:我们可以在别的事情上互相帮助。each other是固定结构,意为“相互”。8.other 根据上文的two booklets,the first booklet及下文的both可知,艾米莉有两本小册子,故用the other指两本小册子中的一本。9.Neither 上文提到了两本小册子,否定两者用neither。

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“What can I do?” she thinks to herself.“I really have enough!”Suddenly,a great idea comes to her mind.“I know!” she thinks,“I’ll make a drawing of everything I read!I like to draw,and drawings will make it interesting!”She grabs her pencil and happily begins to draw.More and more is drawn on her notebook,and after two hours she finishes her booklets.She is tired but happy,and she can finally go out to play.

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“Where is 10.        ” she asks herself.Emily notices it is dark already.“I guess they all went home ...”?Suddenly her doorbell rings.Kelly and the rest of her friends are there.They are all tired and they want to watch a movie together.Emily is very happy.She can now enjoy a movie with her friends!
10.everybody/everyone 根据下文的they all went home可知,此处用everybody或everyone指代所有的在外面玩耍的小伙伴。

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Ⅳ.短文改错(2016·山西考前质检)To some people,success is based on the luck,a random idea of fate.Success,to a greater extent,can be influenced by luck,and this is not to say that luck is an accident.Luck is predictably.With hard work,which can be controlled.By concentrating several “luck factors” — key areas of your life that influence your future success — you can take control of chances and felt yourself racing forward at a greater rate than you have ever imagined.We will get more done,earn more rewards and have more door opened for yourselves.You will experience more of the things that everybody refer to as “luck”.

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1.删除the luck为抽象名词,前面不加定冠词,故去掉the。2.greater→great to a great extent意为“在很大程度上”,故改为great。这里没有比较的意思。3.and→but 根据语境可知,上下文为转折关系,故改为but。4.predictably→predictable 此处应用形容词做表语,故改为predictable。5.which→it 本句为简单句,缺少主语,主语指前面提到的luck,故改为it。

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6.concentrating后加on concentrate on意为“全神贯注于”,故加on。7.felt→feel 由can take和and可知,此处改为feel。8.We→You 上下文的人称都是第二人称。故改为You。9.door→doors door是可数名词,由more可知,应用复数,故改为doors。10.refer→refers 根据整篇文章的时态可知,用一般现在时,从句主语为everybody,故改为refers。

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