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2018年高考英语一轮复习语法课件专题五:数词和主谓一致
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语法专题五 数词和主谓一致

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1.(2016·全国甲,语法填空)Leaving the less important things until tomorrow       (be) often acceptable.?2.(2016·全国丙,语法填空)Confucius believed knives would remind people of killings and       (be) too violent for use at the table.?
1.is 根据语境可知此处要用一般现在时,表示一个常态或者习惯做法,且动词-ing形式做主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。2.were 根据语境以及前面的动词believed可知此处应用一般过去时,且主语knives为复数形式,故谓语动词用were。

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3.(2015·课标全国Ⅱ,语法填空)This cycle       (go) day after day:The walls warm up during the day and cool off during the night and are thus always a timely offset(抵消) for the outside temperatures.?
3.goes 本文讲述的是事实,后面的动词 warm也用了一般现在时,故这里的go也应用一般现在时;又因为主语This cycle为第三人称单数,故用goes。

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一、数词数词分为两种:基数词(表示数目)和序数词(表示顺序)。表示某人的确切年龄,用“基数词+year(s) old”或者“at the age of+基数词”,也可直接用基数词;表示某人几十多岁时,用“in one’s+基数词的复数(如twenties,thirties等)”来表达。She is still in her twenties.她才二十几岁。

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表示“几十年代”时,在年份后加-s或-’s。My grandpa was born in the 1930’s.我爷爷出生于20世纪30年代。分子用基数词,分母用序数词,若分子大于1,则分母用复数。如:one-fourth(a quarter)1/4;two-fifths 2/5。Two-thirds of the money was spent on food.三分之二的钱都花在了食品上。

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1.dozen(一打,十二),score(二十)与具体数词或与many,several 等连用时,后不加-s,所修饰的名词前介词of有无均可。但是习惯上score多与of连用,而dozen很少与of连用。如:two dozen eggs 两打鸡蛋,many dozen pencils好多打铅笔;two score of eggs 40个鸡蛋;three score of people 60个人。dozen,score的复数形式后接of时,表示“许多”。如:dozens of eggs几十个鸡蛋,scores of pencils几十支铅笔。2.当所修饰的名词之前有限定词these,those,my,your等或是修饰人称代词宾格them,us,you时,这时需要加of。如:two dozen of these pens,three score of them。

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二、主谓一致谓语动词的数应和主语的人称和数保持一致,这叫主谓一致。在判定一个句子主谓是否一致时,要遵循下列三个原则:语法一致、意义一致和就近一致。“语法一致”也就是从语法形式上取得一致,即主语为单数形式,谓语动词也采用单数形式;主语为复数形式,谓语动词亦为复数形式。“意义一致”就是从意义着眼来处理主谓语一致的问题。主语形式为单数,但意义为复数,谓语动词依意义而定,也采用复数形式。“就近一致”是指谓语动词的人称和数往往和与其最近的主语保持一致。

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1.主语为表示时间、距离、金钱、书名等整体概念的名词时。Ten miles is not a long way for me.十英里对我来说不是很长的距离。2.由and连接的两个或两个以上的单数名词做主语,前面由不定代词every/each/no修饰时。Each boy and(each) girl has an apple.每个男孩和每个女孩都有一个苹果。3.and连接的两个词是指同一个人、同一事物或同一概念,且两个名词共用一个冠词时。A teacher of English and class teacher is telling us something about volunteer workers now.一位英语老师兼班主任现在正告诉我们关于义工们的一些情况。

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4.“the number of+复数名词”做主语时。The number of professors present at the meeting is 1,800.出席会议的教授人数是1800人。5.动词-ing(短语)、不定式、从句做主语时。What the teacher of the science class does and says is of great importance to the students at college.理科老师做的事和说的话对学院里的学生很重要。6.“more than one+单数名词”和“many a+单数名词”做主语时。More than one student has gone to Beijing.不止一个学生去了北京。

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—Hey!Here is a message on my cellphone,telling me that I have won first prize of a weekend for two in Paris.嘿,我手机上有一条短信,告诉我我已获得巴黎周末双人游的一等奖。—Delete it!It’s a trick.Many a person has been cheated by such tricks.删掉吧!那是个骗局。许多人被这样的短信骗过。7.“the+形容词”做主语,表示一类抽象的事物时,谓语动词用单数形式。The new is sure to replace the old.新生事物一定会取代旧的事物。

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1.有些集合名词如:clothes,cattle,folk,people,police 等做主语,后面的谓语动词用复数形式。The police are searching for the murderer.警方正在搜寻凶手。2.“the+形容词/分词”做主语,表示某一类人时,谓语动词用复数形式。The old are living a happy life now.老人们现在生活幸福。3.由and或both...and...连接两个单数名词做主语时,谓语动词用复数形式(不可数名词同样)。Both coffee and beer are on sale in the shop.这家商店里咖啡和啤酒都有售。

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1.集合名词如:group,family,class,government,team,public,enemy,crowd,audience,club,party,crew等做主语时,如果看成一个整体,谓语动词用单数形式,如果侧重其成员,谓语动词用复数形式。The family which is not big like watching football games.这个家庭不大,全家人喜欢看足球比赛。

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2.主语是单复数同形的名词如:deer,sheep,fish,series,means,works,aircraft等时,视其表达的意义而判断谓语动词的单复数形式。Every means has been tried,but none proved successful.每个办法都尝试过了,但没有一个是成功的。Many means have not come into effect.许多方法都没生效。

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3.代词none,neither,all以及what引导的从句等做主语,谓语动词的单复数形式取决于所指代的内容。All we need is a small piece of land where we can plant various kinds of fruit trees throughout the growing seasons of the year.我们所需要的就是一小块土地,在这儿我们可以在一年的生长季节种植各种各样的果树。What they have are 200 computers.他们拥有的就是二百台电脑。

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4.population表示“人口”,即一个国家或地区的居民数目,它做主语时谓语动词要用单数形式。当它前面有分数或百分数时,population是指一个国家或地区的全体居民,它做主语时,谓语动词一般用复数形式。The population of Canada is about 36 million.加拿大的人口数大约是3600万。Eighty percent of the population in that country are farmers.那个国家80%的人口是农民。

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1.有时主语与谓语动词之间插入一个介词短语,该短语对谓语动词不产生影响。The danger of forest fires is not to be taken lightly.森林火灾的危险不能轻视。2.当主语后面跟有with,together with,along with,accompanied by,like,in addition to,as well as,as much as,more than,rather than,no less than,except,but,besides,including 等连接的单词(词组)时,其谓语动词的单复数形式要与它们前面的主语取得一致。Newspapers,as well as magazines,play an important role in daily communication.报纸,还有杂志,在我们的日常交流中起到了重要的作用。

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1.由some,plenty,a lot,lots,most,the rest,all,half,part或分数、百分数+of+名词等短语做主语时,谓语动词常与of后的名词保持数的一致。如果of后面所接名词为复数形式,谓语动词用复数形式;如果of后面所接名词为单数或不可数名词,谓语动词就用单数形式。About one third of the books are well worth reading.大约三分之一的书非常值得阅读。Over 30% of the work has been finished.百分之三十以上的工作已经完成了。

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2.由a kind of,this kind of,many kinds of,名词+of this kind(type,sort,part,piece,section,pair)等构成的短语做主语时,谓语动词与of前的名词保持数的一致。This kind of animals is dangerous.Animals of this kind are dangerous.这种动物很危险。

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3.“a large amount of+不可数名词”做主语,谓语动词用单数形式。“large amounts of+不可数名词”做主语,谓语动词用复数形式。“a good/great deal of+不可数名词”做主语,谓语动词用单数形式。Vast amounts of money are being invested in the local market.大量资金投放到当地的市场上。One survey shows that a great deal of water is wasted every year in China,and that one third is available to be saved.调查表明在中国大量的水被浪费了,其中的三分之一是能节省下来的。

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1.由or,either...or,neither...nor,not only...but also...等连接两个或两个以上的并列主语时,谓语动词和与它最近的主语在人称和数上保持一致。Not only his family but also he likes Chaplin’s movies.不但他的家人而且连他也喜欢卓别林的电影。Are either you or your brother going to the party?要么你要么是你的弟弟将要去参加这个聚会吗?2.there be句型中be 的形式由它后面的第一个名词的数决定。There are some envelopes and paper for you.这里有一些信封和纸张给你。

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1.在定语从句里,关系代词that,who,which等做主语时,其谓语动词的数应与句中先行词的数一致。Those who have seen the film please put up your hands.看过这部电影的请举手。2.“one of+复数名词+定语从句”结构中,从句中谓语动词要用复数形式。Tom is one of the boys who have gone abroad.汤姆是出过国的男孩之一。3.“the only one of+复数名词+定语从句”结构中,从句中的谓语动词要用单数形式。He is the only one of the students who has passed the exam.他是唯一一个通过考试的学生。

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Ⅰ.单句填空1.The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency       (say) it is the fifth largest creator of dangerous waste.(2016·河南八市重点中学质量检测)?2.Study co-author Wei-Min Wu says that in 24 hours,the plastic           (turn) into carbon dioxide.(2016·河南八市重点中学质量检测)?
1.says 该句时态为一般现在时,且主语为单数名词,故填says。2.is turned 主语the plastic为不可数名词,与turn之间构成动宾关系,且该句为一般现在时,故填is turned。

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3.The walls of the cave             (cover) with ancient art.(2016·郑州第二次质量预测)?4.I think this is a phenomenon,which       (call) for our great concern.(2016·福建五校毕业班统考)?
3.were covered 由该句结构可知,主语The walls of the cave和动词cover之间是动宾关系,故用被动语态;且此处表示的是过去的状况,主语为复数,故填were covered。4.calls 分析该句结构可知,该句为定语从句,which指代a phenomenon,故谓语动词应用第三人称单数;由I think this is可知,应用一般现在时,故填calls。

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5.A group of dogs           (know) as “Therapy Dogs”.(2016·石家庄一模)?6.Dr.Barone        (operate) on people with all types of birth defects.She also goes to other countries where people cannot afford this treatment and helps them for free.(2016·山东潍坊第一次统考)?
5.are known 由句子结构可知,本句缺少谓语动词,“a group of+名词复数”做主语时,谓语动词用复数形式,dogs与know是动宾关系,此处描述的是一般情况,因此用一般现在时的被动语态。6.operates 根据语境可知,此处表示经常做的事情,故用一般现在时,且由句子主语Dr.Barone可知,应填operates,与下文的goes和helps呼应。

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7.A few of the most recent       (be) Best Doctors in America 2013—2014,America’s Top Plastic Surgery,and many others.(2016·山东潍坊第一次统考)?8.Art       (be) and can be whatever a culture says it is,or whatever people want it to be.(2016·山西考前质检)?
7.are 根据A few of可知,此处谓语动词应用复数,且此处表示客观情况,故用一般现在时的复数形式,即are。8.is 主语Art为单数名词且该句时态是一般现在时。故填is。

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9.Swimming in heated pools       (be) very common in this part of the country in the winter.?10.Without the new taxes,houses built before World War Ⅱ       (have) lower costs than more modern houses do.?
9.is 此处为动词-ing形式做主语,谓语动词用单数形式,且该句为一般现在时,故用is。10.have 分析该句结构可知,该句的主语是houses,且该句为一般现在时,故此处用have。

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11.That Shakespeare was one of the most talented writers       (be) an understatement to those who are really familiar with the field of literature.?12.Neither the teacher nor the students       (know) the solution to the maths problem.?
11.is That Shakespeare was one of the most talented writers为that引导的名词性从句做主语,谓语动词用单数形式,根据后文可知,此处用一般现在时,故用is。12.know neither...nor连接两个并列的主语,谓语动词的单、复数形式决定于最靠近它的主语the students,且该句为一般现在时,故用know。

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13.Far from being a poor city with little diversity,New Orleans certainly       (rank) as one of the most interesting spots in the United States.?14.Never       (have) the weather been so bad in the months of June and July.?15.He is one of those people who       (work) too hard.?
13.ranks 分析该句结构可知,该句的主语是New Orleans,故谓语动词用单数形式。14.has 该句为倒装句,谓语动词应与其主语the weather保持一致,由been可知,此处应用has。15.work 此处为who引导的定语从句,先行词为those people,且该句为一般现在时,故用work。

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Ⅱ.单句改错1.As the saying go,treat others as you would like to be treated.(2016·河北三市第二次联考)?2.Each of us have some bad habits.(2016·昆明两区七校调研)?
1.go→goes 从句主语the saying为第三人称单数,故用goes。2.have→has 由句子主语each of us可知,此处谓语动词应用单数形式。

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3.Ever since then,my fear of speaking before the audience had disappeared.(2016·郑州第一次质检)?4.That’s why he is in good health most of the time,though he caught a cold now and then.(2016·昆明两区七校调研)
3.had→has 根据该句中的Ever since then可知,该句应用现在完成时。主语为my fear,故用has。4.caught→catches 根据时间状语now and then可知,此处表示一种常态,故用一般现在时;主语为he,故谓语动词应用单数形式,即catches。

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5.This change in communication have good effects on our works and life.(2016·石家庄调研检测)?6.Some of us is having problems with our parents,as they often look into our school bags.(2016·湖北七市教科协作体联考)?
5.have→has 由语境可知,应用一般现在时;由句子主语This change可知,谓语动词应用单数形式,即has。works→work work表示“工作”时是不可数名词。6.is→are 主语为Some of us,根据下文的our可知,该句的谓语动词应用复数。

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7.He began to count the people in his mind while they having the delicious food.(2016·贵州高考适应性考试)?8.I was sound asleep when my alarm clock dropped onto the floor and were broken into pieces.(2016·东北三省四市教研联合体二模)
7.having前加were 此处表示过去正在进行的动作,应用过去进行时,由主语they可知,应用were having。8.were→was 主语为my alarm clock,是单数形式,因此用was。

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9.Besides,there is a great number of tourist attractions worth visiting,such as the Great Wall,the Summer Palace and the Forbidden City.(2016·济南一模)?10.She woke up early every morning to study a bit before class.(2016·湖南东部六校联考)
9.is→are there be句型中谓语的形式与后面的名词保持一致,即与attractions一致,根据上下文时态可知,应用are。10.woke→wakes 由every morning可知,应用一般现在时;结合主语She可知,应用第三人称单数形式。

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Ⅲ.短文改错(2016·成都毕业班第一次诊断性检测)We are now living in a information age,in which TV,cells and the Web are wide used.It seem that many people cannot enjoy themselves without it.However,if I were to give up one of them,I would rather turn off TV than to switch off my cell or cut off the Internet.I could do without TV because few shows took my fancy and there are too many commercials.Besides,most programs on TV are available elsewhere,either.As for cells and the Web,they are less necessary for me.I need a cell to keep in touch my friend and my family.

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1.a→the/an 考查冠词。age意为“时代”,且被名词修饰,表示一个具体的或特指的概念,故用不定冠词或定冠词修饰。因为information的读音以元音音素开头,因此用不定冠词an。2.wide→widely 考查副词。修饰动词应用副词,故用widely做状语。3.seem→seems 考查时态和主谓一致。与主语It呼应,且与上句语境中的now呼应,故用一般现在时的单数形式,即seems。4.it→them 考查代词。此处代指上文提到的TV,cells和the Web,是复数概念,故用them。5.删除to 考查固定搭配。would rather do...than do...意为“宁愿做……而不愿做……”,为固定搭配,故用动词原形形式。6.took→take 考查动词时态和主谓一致。由语境and there are可知,此处应用一般现在时,且由主语shows可知,应用take。

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7.either→too 考查副词。too表示“也”,用于肯定句,而either则用于否定句。根据语境可知,此处应用too。8.less→more 考查语境。由下文的I need a cell to keep in touch可知,网络和手机对作者来说更为需要,故此处用more。9.touch后加with 考查介词。keep in touch with sb.意为“与某人保持联系”,为固定搭配,故用介词with。10.friend→friends 考查名词的数。friend是可数名词,根据语境可知,应用名词的复数形式,即friends。

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