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2018年高考英语一轮复习语法课件专题八:定语从句
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语法专题八 定语从句

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1.(2016·全国乙,语法填空) But my connection with pandas goes back to my days on a TV show in the mid-1980s,       I was the first Western TV reporter permitted to film a special unit caring for pandas rescued from starvation in the wild.?
when 分析句子结构可知,此处用when引导定语从句,修饰the mid-1980s。定语从句的主干I was the first Western TV reporter不缺少主语或者宾语的成分,因此要用关系副词when做状语。

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2.(2016·全国丙,语法填空) Some people think that the great Chinese scholar Confucius,       lived from roughly 551 to 479 B.C.,influenced the development of chopsticks.?3.(2014·课标全国Ⅰ,语法填空) Maybe you have a habit       is driving your family crazy.?
2.who 根据对逗号前后内容的分析可以看出空格处所在句子为非限制性定语从句,其先行词Confucius 指人,故用who引导该定语从句并作从句的主语。3.that/which 这里的意思是:也许你有一个能使你的家人发疯的习惯。这里habit是先行词,which或that引导的是定语从句,并且在从句中做主语,不能省略,故用that/which。

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关系代词有who,whom,which,that和whose,另外,as也可充当关系代词。关系代词在定语从句中充当主语、宾语、表语和定语。关系副词有when,where和why,在定语从句中充当状语。1.who指人,在定语从句中做主语或宾语。Happiness and success often come to those who are good at recognizing their own strengths.幸福和成功经常属于那些善于认识自己长处的人。2.whom指人,在定语从句中做宾语,常可省略。Do you know the boy(whom) we met at the gate?你认识我们在门口碰到的那个男孩吗?

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3.which 指物,在定语从句中做主语或宾语,做宾语时常可省略。The exact year(which/that) Angela and her family spent together in China was 2008.安杰拉和她的家人在中国共同度过的确切年份是2008年。4.that 指人时,相当于who 或whom;指物时,相当于which。在定语从句中做主语或宾语,做宾语时常可省略。She is the pop star(that) I want to see very much.她就是那位我非常想见的明星。Among the many dangers(which/that) sailors have to face,probably the greatest of all is fog.在海员们要面对的许多危险中,最严重的可能就是雾。

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5.whose可指人或物,修饰名词或代词,在定语从句中充当定语。“whose+名词”可改为“the+名词+of which/whom”或“of which/whom the+名词”。The books on the desk,whose covers are shiny,are prizes for us.桌子上的这些书是给我们的奖品,它们的封面很亮。A company whose profits from home markets are declining may seek opportunities abroad.国内市场利润下降的公司会寻求到国外发展的机会。The house whose windows are very large is my uncle’s.=The house of which the windows are very large is my uncle’s.那个窗子非常大的房子是我叔叔的。

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6.as可指人也可指物,在定语从句中做主语、宾语或表语。(1)引导限制性定语从句,先行词前常有as,the same,so,such修饰,且在从句中做主语、宾语或表语时,关系代词要用as。It was so difficult a problem as nobody in my class could work out.(as做work out的宾语)这个问题很难以至于我们班里没有人能解出来。注意so/such...that结构中,that引导结果状语从句,只起连接作用,不充当从句的任何成分。It was so difficult a problem that nobody in my class could work it out.(work out 已经有宾语,that只起连接作用)

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(2)as可以引导非限制性定语从句,代指整个主句的内容,从句中常用的谓语动词为see,say,hear,expect,know,report等,常译为“正如,正像”,其引导的从句可以放在主句前面也可以放在主句后面。The number of smokers,as is reported,has dropped by 17 percent in just one year.正如所报道的,吸烟者的数量在仅仅一年中下降了百分之十七。

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7.when指时间,在定语从句中做时间状语。其先行词是表示时间的名词time,day,week,year,month等,常用on which,in which,at which,during which等代替。As the smallest child of his family,Alex is always longing for the time when he should be able to be independent.作为家中最小的孩子,亚历克斯总是渴望自己能够独立的日子。I am looking forward to the day when/on which my daughter can read this book and know my feelings for her.我一直期盼那一天,我的女儿能够读懂这本书并且知道我对她的情感。

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8.where 指地点,在定语从句中做地点状语。其先行词是表示地点的名词,可以用“介词+关系代词”代替。The house where/in which he lives is near the river.他住的房子在河边。注意高考对where的考查趋于复杂,先行词由“明显的地点”转为“模糊的地点”,或者说“抽象的地点”。这些名词有:stage,case,position,situation,point,occasion,activity等。Students should involve themselves in community activities where/in which they can gain experience for growth.学生应该参与社区活动,在这些活动中他们能获取成长的经验。

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9.why 指原因,在定语从句中做原因状语,可用for which来替代。why不可引导非限制性定语从句。Tell me the reason why/for which you came late.告诉我你来晚了的原因。注意用关系代词还是关系副词完全取决于从句中的谓语动词。及物动词后面无宾语,就必须要用关系代词;而不及物动词则要求用关系副词。?

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1.当先行词是everything,anything,nothing,something,all,none,few,little,some等不定代词时,或当先行词被every,any,all,some,no,little,few,much等不定代词修饰时。We should do all that is useful to the people.我们应该做一切有益于人民的事情。2.先行词被the only,the very,the same,the last等修饰时。This is the last place that I want to visit.这是我最不想参观的地方。

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3.先行词是最高级或被最高级修饰时。This is the best novel that I have ever read.这是我读过的最好的一部小说。4.先行词是数词或被序数词修饰时。This is the third dictionary that I have used.这是我用过的第三本字典。5.当先行词同时含有表示人和物的名词时。We talked about the things and persons that we were interested in.我们谈论了我们感兴趣的人和事。6.以who或which开头的特殊疑问句中含有定语从句,为避免重复时。Who is the man that is standing under the tree?站在树下的那个人是谁?

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注意Qingdao is the most beautiful city where I have ever worked.(即使有最高级修饰先行词city,但从句中work为不及物动词,先行词只做其地点状语,故要用关系副词)前面所述几种情况已有前提:需要用关系代词时,遇到这几种情况才选用that。

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1.在“介词+关系代词”的结构中,关系代词只能用指物的which和指人的whom。This is the train by which we went to Beijing.这就是我们去北京乘的那列火车。2.在非限制性定语从句(即通常用逗号与主句隔开,若去掉整个句子仍能表达完整意义的定语从句)中。I borrowed the book Sherlock Holmes from the library last week,which my classmates recommended to me.上周我在图书馆里借了《夏洛克·福尔摩斯》这本书,书是我的同学向我推荐的。

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3.指人时,当先行词为everybody,anybody,everyone,anyone等时,关系代词要用who,不用that。Is there anyone who can answer this question?有谁能回答这个问题?4.先行词本身是指示代词that或those时,关系代词应用which。What’s that which she is looking at?她正在看什么?

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1.位置不同。which 引导的定语从句只置于所限制的句子后;as引导的定语从句位置较灵活,也就是说as从句可置于所限制的句子前、插在句子中或放在句子后。It is a truly delightful place,which looks the same as it must have done 100 years ago with its winding streets and pretty cottages.它确实是一个宜人的地方。与一百年前的样子一样,有着弯弯曲曲的小径和漂亮的村舍。Mike,as you know,is an honest man./Mike is an honest man,as you know./As you know,Mike is an honest man.如你所知,迈克是个诚实的人。

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2.先行词不同。as引导非限制性定语从句时,其先行词多为一个句子;which引导非限制性定语从句时,其先行词可以是一个词、一个短语或一个句子。As we all know,he is very proud.(先行词为一个句子)众所周知,他很骄傲。He was proud,which his brother never was.(先行词是一个词)他是自大的,而他弟弟从不自大。

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3.意义不同。as一般译为“正如,就像”;which一般译为“这一点,这件事”。John,as you know,is my best friend.正如你所知,约翰是我最好的朋友。He has been to Paris more than ten times,which I don’t believe.他已去过巴黎十多次了,这一点我不相信。4.关系不同。当主句和从句之间存在着逻辑上的因果关系时,关系词往往只用which。Tom was late for school,which made his teacher very angry.汤姆上学迟到了,这使他老师很生气。

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注意as多用于下列习惯用语中:①as anybody can see正如大家能看到的那样②as we had expected正如我们所预料的那样③as often happens正如经常发生的那样④as has been said before如之前所述⑤as is mentioned above正如上面所提到的

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1.在“介词+关系代词”结构中,关系代词指人时用whom,不可用who或者that;指物时用which,不能用that;关系代词是所有格时用whose。The person to whom you’ll write is Mr Ball.The old man was talking with Mr Smith,in whose hospital I was operated on.2.“介词+关系代词”前可有some,any,none,both,all,neither,most,each,few等代词及名词、数词。He has two sons,both of whom were killed in the war.I live in a house,the window of which faces the south.

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3.“介词+关系代词”结构中介词的选择可根据定语从句中谓语动词和介词的习惯搭配、先行词和介词的习惯搭配来确定,有时也需要结合句意。In the street there wasn’t any person to whom she could turn for help.The boss in whose company my father worked is a very kind person.4.“复合介词短语+关系代词which”引导的定语从句中,定语从句常和先行词用逗号分开,定语从句常用倒装语序。He lives in a big house,in front of which stands a tall apple tree.注意在一些固定搭配的短语动词中,由于动词和介词不能分割,因此不能把介词置于关系代词之前。This is the book(which/that) I’m looking for.不可以说:This is the book for which I’m looking.

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5.from where 虽为“介词+关系副词”结构,但也可引导定语从句,where往往指代前面表示具体位置的介词短语。He stood on top of the hill,from where he could see the whole village.(where指代on top of the hill,指的是“从山顶那个地方看”,而不是指“山”)

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1.定语从句与同位语从句的区别。二者都跟在名词后面,区别是:定语从句修饰先行词,是对其进行修饰限定;同位语从句则是对前面名词的解释说明,是其内容。同位语从句前的名词常为抽象名词,如:idea,fact,truth,evidence,news,thought。同位语从句主要由that引导,在从句中不做成分,有时也可以由when,where,how,why,whether,what等词引导,在从句中充当成分。The news that our team won made us excited.(our team won是news的内容,that不充当从句的成分,为同位语从句。可理解为:The news was that our team won.)The news that he told me was exciting.(he told me 缺少一个直接宾语,由that充当,故为定语从句。不能将其理解为:The news was that he told me.)

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2.定语从句与并列句和简单句的区别。区别的关键是看标点和连接词。Our class has sixty students,most of whom study hard.(逗号后为另一个句子,两个句子之间要用连接代词whom,为定语从句)Our class has sixty students,and most of them study hard.(逗号后为另一个句子,且已经有并列连词and,故用them即可,为并列句)Our class has sixty students.Most of them study hard.(两句之间为句号,代表两个独立的简单句,故不需要连接词)

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3.定语从句与状语从句的区别。定语从句前面必有先行词,而状语从句(如时间状语从句和地点状语从句)则是做整个句子的状语,前面没有先行词。Do you know the time when he will come back?(定语从句,前面有先行词time)I will go shopping when he comes back.(时间状语从句,表示主句动作发生的时间,前面没有先行词)Put the book where it belongs.(地点状语从句,指的是“放书”的地点,前面无先行词,因此不能用to which)Put the book in the place where it belongs.(定语从句,前面有先行词place)

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4.定语从句与强调句的区别。当it is/was后出现表示地点或时间的名词时,其后所接的从句是定语从句还是强调句,要看将it is/was和that(可以先假设)去掉之后句式是否完整(不缺少成分),若句式完整则为强调句。It was Sunday when he came back.(定语从句)It was on Sunday that he came back.(强调句式,强调的是时间状语on Sunday,去掉It was和that后句式完整)

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1.当先行词为way,意为“方法、方式”,且在定语从句中做主语、宾语时,可用关系代词which或that;做状语时,要用in which 或that或不填任何关系词。The way(that/in which) he finished the task successfully was difficult to understand.(做状语)The way that/which he explained to me was not difficult to understand.(做宾语)2.当先行词为time时,若表示“一段时间”,后面定语从句用when引导,也可用at/during which;若表示“次数”,后面定语从句用that引导,that可以省略。There was a time when we had no TV sets.This is the second time(that) the president has visited our country.

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Ⅰ.单句填空1.Is it a place with a lot of open spaces       people can exercise and enjoy the fresh air?(2016·山西第二次四校联考)?2.These dogs are family pets with special training,       allows them to go into public buildings and comfort people in need.(2016·石家庄一模)?
1.where 分析句子结构可知,空处引导定语从句,先行词为open spaces,关系词在定语从句中做地点状语,故用关系副词where。2.which 此处是一个非限制性定语从句,先行词为“special training”。故应填which。

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3.It involves all people,those       come up with the idea of the work,perform it and provide necessary equipment and materials,and people who make up the audience for the work.(2016·山西考前质检)?4.       someone once said,“Art is life.”(2016·山西考前质检)?
3.who 先行词是those,指人,从句中缺少主语。故填who。4.As As引导非限制性定语从句,句意为“正如某人说过的”。故填As。

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8.I’m looking at the photograph       you sent me with your letter.?9.They expect his decision soon,      should help them solve the problem.?10.The president of the company,       I really admire,is visiting us next week.?
8.that/which 先行词是物photograph,且在从句中做宾语,故应用which或that连接。9.which 此处是一个非限制性定语从句,先行词为“his decision”。故应填which。10.who/whom 先行词为the president,指人,且在从句中做admire的宾语,故应填who/whom。

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11.The amusement park       people of all ages come to relax and have fun will close next year.?12.He paid the boy $10 for washing ten windows,most          hadn’t been cleaned for at least a year.?
11.where 分析句子结构可知,空处引导定语从句,先行词为the amusement park,关系词在定语从句中做地点状语,故用关系副词where。12.of which which的先行词是windows,windows在从句中当介词of的宾语,介词后面不能用关系代词that,故应填of which。

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13.Rachel,   she placed the greatest trust,failed to match her expectations.?14.In the dark street,there wasn’t a single person,          she could turn for help.?
13.in whom place trust in sb.是固定短语,意为“信任某人”,先行词是Rachel,在从句中做in的宾语,故应填in whom。14.to whom 先行词为a single person在从句中做宾语,“向某人求助”应该用turn to sb.for help,因此先行词做to的宾语。故应填to whom。

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15.Scientists have searched for a long time for a reason       so many bees are disappearing.?
15.why 分析句子结构可知空格后为定语从句。先行词是a reason,关系词在定语从句so many bees are disappearing中做状语,故用why来引导。

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Ⅱ.单句改错1.One day I saw a second-hand bicycle,that was only one hundred yuan.I asked my father for the money.(2016·四川绵阳第二次诊断)?2.Actually she is an exchange student from Ireland,whom has been studying in my school for two months.(2016·湖南东部六校联考)
1.that→which 前面有逗号,故应用which引导非限制性定语从句,且在从句中做主语。2.whom→who 本处先行词为an exchange student,指人,关系词在定语从句中做主语,故应用关系代词who。

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3.Surprisingly,I was given the silver medal,that increased my confidence.(2016·合肥第一次质检)?4.Local people live in old houses,they are very friendly.(2016·郑州第二次质量预测)
3.that→which 本句为非限制性定语从句,并且关系词指代前面整句话,故改为which。4.they前加and或they→who 当地人在老房子中居住,他们很友好。由句意可知,两句间为并列关系,故用并列连词。或者“Local people”为先行词,后面用who引导非限制性定语从句。

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5.You can find all kinds of delicious food in Beijing,of that the most famous is the Beijing roast duck.(2016·济南一模)?6.He wrote many children’s books,nearly half of them were published in the 1990s.
5.that→which which引导定语从句,在从句中做介词of的宾语。6.them→which 句意:他写了很多本儿童读物,其中将近一半是于20世纪90年代出版的。此处是“介词+关系代词”引导非限制性定语从句,先行词为books,指物,故把them改为which。

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7.Opposite is St.Paul’s Church,which you can hear some lovely music.8.The results of the experiment proved to be very good,that was more than we expected.
7.which→where 句意:对面是圣保罗教堂,在那里你可以听到一些动听的音乐。分析句意及句子结构可知,先行词St.Paul’s Church;St.Paul’s Church是一个表示地点的名词,定语从句you can hear some lovely music不缺少主语或者宾语,因此应该把which改为where。8.that→which 句意:实验的结果证明很好,这远远超出我们的想象。题干中的逗号前是主句,逗号后是非限制性定语从句,that不能引导非限制性定语从句,因此要把that改为which。which表示主句造成的结果,代表主句的内容。

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9.There are times that you have to act from the heart.?10.Anne Bowman,whom recently made a study,asked 125 undergraduate students to rank two groups of photographs in the order of attractiveness.
9.that→when 句意:人有些时候得凭良心做事。times为先行词,定语从句中不缺少主语或者宾语的成分,只缺少时间状语,故要把that改为when。10.whom→who 此处为定语从句,先行词为writer,非限制性定语从句中缺少主语,要把whom改为who。whom在句子中做宾语,不能做主语。

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Ⅲ.短文改错(2016·福建毕业班单科质检)Hi Eva,Sorry that I haven’t been in the touch for a while.But I catch a cold last week,and I’ve been in bed for four day.I’m feeling better today.Lucky my classes won’t start till next week.I have good news.I’m going to a conference in you town in May,from 16th to 20th.Could you recommend a hotel where is in the centre of the town?It needs to be somewhere not too expensive because the tight budget.I’ll have a freely half-day for sightseeing.Do you think you can showed me around?Looking forward to hear from you soon.Chris

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1.删除the 考查冠词。be in touch为固定搭配,意为“联系”,不用冠词。2.catch→caught 考查动词的时态。根据该句中的last week可知,该处叙述的是过去发生的事,故用一般过去时,应将catch改为caught。3.day→days 考查名词的数。根据该句中的four可知,后面的名词应用复数。4.Lucky→Luckily 考查副词。分析该句结构可知,此处应用副词修饰整个句子做状语。5.you→your 考查物主代词。根据该句中的名词town可知,应用形容词性物主代词,故用your。

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6.where→that/which 考查定语从句。分析句子结构可知,该句为定语从句,先行词为hotel,在从句中做主语,故用that或which引导定语从句。7.because后加of 考查固定短语。根据名词短语“the tight budget”可以判断,此处应用固定短语because of,意为“因为,由于”。because后跟句子。8.freely→free 考查形容词。根据名词half-day可以判断,该词前应用形容词修饰,故用free,意为“自由的,空闲的”。9.showed→show 考查动词的时态。该句中can为情态动词,后面应接动词原形。10.hear→hearing 考查非谓语动词。look forward to为固定搭配,意为“盼望……”,其中的to为介词,后应接动词-ing形式。

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