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2018年高考英语一轮复习语法课件专题十二:特殊句式
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语法专题十二 特殊句式

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1.(2016·全国甲,语法填空)It could be anything—gardening,cooking,music,sports—but whatever it is,      (make) sure it’s a relief from daily stress rather than another thing to worry about.?2.(2016·天津改编)You are waiting at a wrong place.It is at the hotel       the coach picks up tourists.?
1.make 前面whatever it is引导让步状语从句,此处是一个完整句子,因此只能用动词原形放句首,构成祈使句。2.that 句意:你等错地方了。长途汽车在宾馆接游客。强调句型的构成为:It is/was+被强调部分+that/who+句子其他部分。本句中at the hotel是被强调部分,故填引导词that。

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3.(2015·湖南改编)Always       (keep) in mind that your main task is to get this company running smoothly.?4.It’s not doing the things we like,but liking the things we have to do       makes life happy.?5.It was the culture,rather than the language,       made it hard for him to adapt to the new environment abroad.?
3.keep 句意:始终记住你的主要任务是使公司运转顺利。祈使句省略了第二人称you,谓语动词用原形。4.that 句意:不是做我们喜欢的事情而是喜欢我们要做的事情才使得人生幸福快乐。此处为“It’s...that...”强调句,强调的是句子的主语,故填that。5.that 句意:是文化而不是语言使他很难适应国外的新环境。“It was...that...”构成强调句型,强调句子的主语。

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一、倒装1.表示时间、地点、方位和动作转移的副词,如:there,here,now,then,up,down,out,in,away位于句首,句子谓语是go,come,run等不及物动词,可将谓语全部置于主语之前。但主语是人称代词时,不倒装。There remains the possibility that mistakes have been made.仍然有已经出错的可能。Look!From opposite the street come two kids,screaming in panic.看!两个孩子从街对面过来,(他们)惊慌地尖叫着。2.当句首状语为表示地点的介词短语时,也常常用全部倒装。South of the city lies a factory.城市的南面有家工厂。

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3.such做表语置于句首时,也常常用全部倒装。Such was Einstein,a simple man but a great scientist.这就是爱因斯坦,一位朴实而又伟大的科学家。4.表语置于句首时,倒装结构为“表语+连系动词+主语”。(1)形容词+连系动词+主语Present at the meeting were some experts.到会的是一些专家。(2)过去分词+连系动词+主语Gone are the days when we walked to work.我们步行上班的时代一去不复返了。(3)介词短语+连系动词+主语Among the goods are flowers,candles and toys.货物中有花,蜡烛和玩具。

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1.句子以never,seldom,rarely,little,hardly,scarcely等表示否定意义的副词以及by no means,not until,not only,not a word,not a single,on no condition,in no case等表示否定意义的词组开头,要用部分倒装语序。Never will he come back to the factory.他永远也不会回到这家工厂了。Not only do the nurses want a pay increase,they want reduced hours as well.护士们不仅想要增加报酬,她们也想要减少工作时间。

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2.当句子用so,nor,neither开头,说明前面一句话中的情况也适用于另外一些人或物时,主语和谓语部分倒装。Tom likes English,and so do I.汤姆喜欢英语,我也喜欢英语。3.在so/such...that引导的结果状语从句中,为了强调,把so/such提到句首时,主谓要倒装。So moved was she that she could not say a word.她感动得一句话都说不出来。So fast does he run that he is far ahead of others.他跑得那么快以至于远远超过了其他人。

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4.as/though引导让步状语从句时句子要用倒装语序,即要将从句中的表语、状语或从句中的动词提到as/though的前面。在as/though引导的让步状语从句中,做表语的单数可数名词前不用加任何冠词。Child as he is,he knows a lot.尽管他是个孩子,但他懂得很多。5.在省略if的虚拟条件句中,were,had或should要提到句首构成倒装。Had you come a few minutes earlier,you would have seen him.如果你早来几分钟,你就能看见他了。

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6.当only所修饰的副词、介词短语或状语从句位于句首时,采用部分倒装形式。要注意“only+主语”用在句首时不倒装。Only when Lily walked into the office did she realize that she had left the contract at home.直到莉莉走进办公室,她才意识到自己把合同落在家里了。Only you can help me.只有你能帮助我。7.用于某些表示祝愿的句子。May you succeed!祝你成功!8.neither...nor...连接两个并列分句时,这两个分句都要用倒装形式。Neither do I know it,nor do I care about it.我既不知道这件事,也不关心这件事。

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二、省略1.单独使用不定式符号to代替不定式后被省略的动词,常用在be afraid,expect,forget,hope,intend,like,love,mean,prefer,refuse,try,want,wish等词后;或放在表情绪的词后,代替被省略的动词,常见词有glad,happy,pleased等;但是,如果不定式中含有be,have,have been,则不应省略。The driver wanted to park his car near the roadside but was asked by the police not to.那个司机想在路边停车,但是警察不让(他停在那儿)。

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He is not a lawyer now,but he used to be.他现在已不是律师了,但他曾经是。Your work hasn’t been handed in,but it ought to have been.你的作业还没交,但早该上交了。2.感官动词或使役动词(feel,notice,see,hear,let,make,have等)后接不定式做宾语补足语时常省略to。I heard my father sing in the kitchen.我听见爸爸在厨房里唱歌。

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3.在由and或or连接的并列不定式结构中常省略后面的to。I want to finish my homework and go home.我想完成作业然后回家。4.在do nothing but,can’t help but,why not,would rather...than...,had better等句型中省略to。The little boy could do nothing but cry.小男孩只能哭,别无他法。

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1.在由when,while,if,as if,although/though,as,until,once,whether,when,where等引导的状语从句中,当状语从句的主语和主句的主语一致且从句谓语含有be时,可省略状语从句的主语和be。When (he was) young,he helped his parents do a lot of housework.他小的时候帮父母干了很多家务活。

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2.当从句的主语是it,谓语动词是be动词时,可以把it和be一起省略。此时构成“连词+形容词”的结构。Though (it was) cold,he still wore a shirt.尽管天冷,但他仍然穿着一件衬衣。Please call me if (it is) necessary.如果需要,请给我打电话。3.在if so/not省略句式中,用so/not代替上文的内容。Get up early tomorrow.If not(=If you don’t get up early tomorrow),you will miss the early bus.明天早点起床,不然的话,你就会错过早班车。

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三、强调强调句的基本构成为:It is/was+被强调部分+who/that+其他成分。被强调部分指人时,可用who或that;被强调部分指物时,用that。如:It was John who(that) wore his best suit to the dance last night.是约翰昨晚穿着他最好的一套衣服去参加舞会。It was his best suit that John wore to the dance last night.约翰昨晚是穿着他最好的一套衣服去参加舞会的。

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强调句的一般疑问句形式为 “Is/Was it+被强调部分+that/who+其他成分”;特殊疑问句形式为“特殊疑问词+is/was it+that/who+其他成分”。Was it in high school that you began playing basketball?你是不是在高中的时候开始打篮球的?Where was it that you put your mobile phone after coming back?你回来之后把手机放在什么地方了?

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not...until...结构中的状语成分在强调句型中被强调时,not与until要放在一起。(2015·重庆) Bach died in 1750,but it was not until the early 19th century that his musical gift was fully recognized.巴赫于1750年去世,但直到19世纪早期他的音乐才华才受到普遍认可。It was not until he removed his sunglasses that I recognized him.直到他把太阳镜摘下来我才将他认了出来。

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四、反意疑问句1.当陈述部分带有宾语从句时,反意疑问部分的主语与谓语常和主句保持一致。He said that they would come to my birthday party,didn’t he?他说他们要来参加我的生日聚会,是吗?2.当陈述部分主句的谓语动词是think,believe,suppose,guess,expect,imagine,且主句主语为第一人称时,反意疑问部分的主语和谓语与宾语从句的主语和谓语保持一致;当陈述部分主句的主语为第二、三人称时,后面的疑问部分的主语和谓语与主句的主语和谓语保持一致。They don’t believe he will succeed,do they?他们不相信他会成功,是吗?

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当陈述部分带有seldom,hardly,scarcely,never,few,little,nothing,nobody等否定词时,反意疑问部分用肯定形式。但带有表示否定意义的前缀构成的词时,其反意疑问部分用否定形式。He could hardly speak English,could he?他几乎不会说英语,是吗?He dislikes playing the piano,doesn’t he?他不喜欢弹钢琴,是吗?

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五、祈使句“祈使句+and+简单句”表示“如果……就……”Do that again and I’ll call a policeman.你再那样做我就要叫警察了。
“祈使句+or+简单句”表示“……否则……”Put it down,or I’ll smack you.把它放下来,不然我会揍你。注意有时名词短语可以看作是祈使句。A few more minutes and I will finish the work.再给我几分钟我就会完成这项工作。

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六、感叹句What an interesting story it is!多么有趣的故事啊!What a happy day it is!多么快乐的一天啊!What beautiful butterflies they are!多么漂亮的蝴蝶啊!How tall a boy he is!这个男孩真高啊!How well she plays!她演奏得多好啊!

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Ⅰ.单句填空1.Overcome it       we will be able to achieve our goals.(2016·河北“五个一名校联盟”质量监测)?2.I recently saw a picture of me before my operation,and I know       a big job she did.(2016·山东潍坊第一次统考)?
1.and 此处为“祈使句+and+陈述句”,故用连词 and。2.what what引起的感叹句的结构为:what+a/an+形容词+可数名词单数,故填what。

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3.Don’t forget to put the tools back where they were after you have finished your work,      you 4.It was not until near the end of the letter       she mentioned her own plan.?
3.will 句意:干完活不要忘了把工具放回原处好吗?否定祈使句的反意疑问句用will you。4.that 强调句的基本结构:It is/was+被强调部分+that/who+句子的其他部分。句意:直到在这封信的末尾她才提到自己的计划。

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5.It is not until I have got all the information       I can make further comments.?6.It was only when I watched Inception a second time       I had a better understanding of what it was talking about.?
5.that 句意:直到我得到了全部的信息我才能做出进一步的评论。not until的强调句型结构是It is not until...that+被强调部分。不被强调部分用陈述语气。6.that 句意:是在我再次观看《盗梦空间》时,我才更好地理解了它讨论的是什么。题干中强调的是only when I watched Inception a second time。强调句型结构:It is/was+被强调部分+that/who+句子的其他部分。

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7.      (Take) a deep breath and you will immediately feel the spring in the air.?8.Tom,      (wash) the clothes!?
7.Take 句意:深呼吸,你就会立即感觉到空气中的春天。此处是句型:祈使句+and+分句。8.wash 根据Tom后面的逗号可知,这里Tom是称呼,因此要用祈使句,故用wash的原形。

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Ⅱ.单句改错1.I glanced at it,and said,“So easy,what foolish you are!” (2016·河北三市第二次联考)?2.It was just then when I began to worry about my safety.(2016·成都第二次诊断)
1.what→how 考查疑问词。此处表示这么简单,你多笨啊!foolish为形容词,此处为感叹句,故用疑问副词how。2.when→that 考查强调句型。此处为强调句,被强调的部分是时间状语,故用that。

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3.Suddenly,he cried out:“Oh,they are 13 people here!” (2016·贵州高考适应性考试)?4.I don’t know how many years ago it was when people began to stay at home and civilization began.
3.they→there 考查there be句型。由句意“这里有13个人”可知,应用there be句型。故将they改为there。4.when→that 考查强调句型。此句中被强调部分是how many years ago。

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5.I was afraid she might already have seen the film,but she didn’t.?6.—Will Alex be coming?—I assume that unless he’s got something else to do.?
5.didn’t→hadn’t 根据might already have seen可知,该句表示与过去事实相反的假设,因此从句用过去完成时。故将didn’t改为hadn’t。6.that→so 根据句意可知,“我”肯定亚历克斯会来的,故应用so代替上文提到的肯定的内容。

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7.My uncle was absolutely delighted with the present,but my aunt didn’t.?8.—Do you have time to answer a few questions?—No,I’m afraid so.?
7.didn’t→wasn’t 该句是由并列连词but连接的并列句,后边的分句中可以省略与前边分句中相同的成分,以避免重复。前边为was,故应将didn’t改为wasn’t。8.so→not 根据No可知,此处表示对上面别人所说的话的委婉的否定,故应将so改为not。

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9.As soon as he started smoking,she asked him not so.?10.I never thought I would see her again,but yesterday I would.?
9.so→to 此处为不定式的省略,为避免重复,不定式常省去前面出现的相同成分,只保留不定式符号to,故应将so改为to。10.第二个would→did 由后面分句的yesterday可知用did。

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Ⅲ.用括号内单词的正确顺序填空1.Under no circumstances_____________________________             (children,should,be) allowed to drive.?2.Only after months of planning_____________________________            (ready,they,were) for the conference.?
1.should children be 此句为表示否定意义的词组开头,要用部分倒装语序,故应填should children be。2.were they ready 此处为only所修饰的介词短语位于句首,应采用部分倒装形式,故应填were they ready。

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3.No sooner             (I,had,left) than I heard them laughing.?4.Now             (time,the,was) to escape and she jumped from the window.?
3.had I left 此处no sooner表示具有否定意义的短语放在句首,要用部分倒装语序,故应填had I left。4.was the time 该句为表示时间的副词now位于句首,要用完全倒装语序,故此处应填was the time。

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5.Many a time             (plan,she,did) to divorce her husband,but she never did.?6.Only when             (Jane,has,arrived) can we start the party.?
5.did she plan many a time 在句中充当了状语,且提前至句首,故引起部分倒装。6.Jane has arrived 此处为only+状语从句位于句首,其中状语从句应用陈述语序,故应填Jane has arrived。

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7.            (Max,It,was) who borrowed the money.?8.Never             (seen,I,have) so much snow in November!?
7.It was Max 该句为强调句,其基本构成为:It is/was+被强调部分+who/that+其他成分。故应填It was Max。8.have I seen 此句以表示否定意义的副词never开头,故要用部分倒装语序。

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9.Not until         (saw,I) John with my own eyes did I really believe he was safe.?10.So beautiful             (was,girl,the) that nobody could talk of anything else.?
9.I saw 该句为not until引导的条件状语从句,置于句首,主句要用部分倒装,从句应用陈述语序,故应填I saw。10.was the girl 此句为so... that引导的结果状语从句,且so位于句首,故主谓要倒装。

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Ⅳ.短文改错(2016·石家庄一模)Dear Li Lei,I’ve received your letter and I deep understand how you feel now.However,don’t feel disappointing or even doubt yourself as you are not the only one who find it difficult to write well.I suppose the following suggestion might be of very helpful to you.To begin with,it’s important remember some sentence structures,which can enriched your vocabulary and expressions.Additionally,reading English articles and recite the good ones.Finally,keep in mind what there are many things that can’t be learnt immediately,but never be frustrated when you fail in one or two exams.Just as the saying goes,“Practice makes perfect.”

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1.deep→deeply 考查副词。由句子结构可知,修饰动词understand,且表示抽象意义,应用deeply。deep也可用作副词,表示具体的深度,包括时间和空间;deeply表示抽象的意义。2.disappointing→disappointed 考查非谓语动词。本句为祈使句,且结合feel可知,应用disappointed,表示“失望的”。3.find→finds 考查时态和主谓一致。由文章的整体时态可知,应用一般现在时;且先行词为the only one,故谓语动词用单数形式。4.suggestion→suggestions 考查名词的数。下文的“To begin with” “Additionally” “Finally” 表明不是一条建议,故用复数。5.删除be后的of 考查介词。“be of+抽象名词”=“be+adj.”,该句中的helpful是形容词,故删除of。

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6.important后加to 考查固定句式。it is+adj.(for sb.) to do sth.是固定句式,it做形式主语。7.enriched→enrich 由情态动词can可知,此处应用动词原形。8.reading→read 考查祈使句。根据句中的“and recite the good ones”可知,and连接了两个祈使句,因此此处用read。9.what→that 考查宾语从句。动词短语keep in mind后是一个宾语从句,且从句中不缺少成分,因此用that引导。10.but→so/and 考查连词。由句意可知,前后两个句子可以是因果关系或并列关系,因此用so或and连接。

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