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2019届高考英语一轮复习练习必修3_Unit2知能演练轻松闯关
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上传日期:2018/11/8  
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课时练1 阅读理解提速练
 阅读理解
A
(2018·福州毕业班适应性练习)Known as “The Man with the Golden Arm”,nearly every week for the past 60 years,James Harrison has donated blood plasma(血浆) from his right arm. The reasons can date back to a serious medical procedure.
“When I was 14,I had a chest operation,”recalls Harrison,who is now aged 80.“My father said I had received 13 units of blood and my life had been saved by unknown people. So I said when I’m old enough,I’ll become a blood donor.”
Soon after Harrison became a donor,doctors called him in. His blood,they said,could be the answer to a deadly problem.
“In Australia,up until about 1967,there were about thousands of babies dying each year because of the rhesus disease(恒河猴溶血病),”explains Jemma Falkenmire,of the Australian Red Cross Blood Service.
Harrison was discovered to have an unusual antibody(抗体) in his blood and in the 1960s he worked with doctors to use the antibodies to develop an injection(注射)called Anti-D which can prevent this disease.
Harrison’s blood is precious. Every batch of Anti-D that has ever been made in Australia has come from Harrison’s blood. He and Anti-D are credited with saving the lives of more than 2 million babies,according to the Australian Red Cross Blood Service:That’s about 2 million lives saved by one man’s blood.
Harrison is considered a national hero,and has won numerous awards. He has now donated his plasma more than 1,000 times,but no matter how many times he’s given blood there’s one thing that will never change:“I look at the ceiling or the nurses,maybe talk to them a bit, but never once have I watched the needle go in my arm. I can’t stand the sight of blood,and I can’t stand pain,”he says.
【解题导语】 本文是一篇记叙文,主要讲述了James Harrison用自己的血液挽救了超过两百万名婴儿生命的故事。
1.What was the main reason for Harrison’s becoming a blood donor?
A.He has a golden arm.
B.He has precious blood plasma.
C.His father encouraged him to help others.
D.Donated blood once made him survive.
D 解析:细节理解题。根据第二段的“My father said I had received 13 units of blood and my life had been saved by unknown people. So I said when I’m old enough,I’ll become a blood donor.”可知,Harrison知道他的生命是被不相识的人救的,所以长大后要做一个献血者。故D项正确。
2.Why is James’ blood precious?
A.James has the Anti-D in his blood.
B.His blood is more useful in treating the rhesus disease.
C.James’ blood is the main source of Anti-D in Australia.
D.James has donated more plasma than other donators.
C 解析:细节理解题。根据第六段第一、二句可知,Harrison的血液宝贵的原因是他的血液是澳大利亚Anti-D的主要来源,故C项正确。
3.How does Harrison feel when donating his plasma?
A.Nervous.   B.Relaxed.
C.Anxious. D.Excited.
A 解析:推理判断题。根据最后一段中的“I look at the ceiling or the nurses,maybe talk to them a bit, but never once have I watched the needle go in my arm.”可知,在献血时他看着天花板或者护士,也许跟护士聊一聊,但从来不看针扎进手臂。据此可以判断,他在献血时很紧张,故A项正确。
B
(2018·江西赣中南五校联考)Before I studied psychology,I used to think that people would laugh when funny things occurred.While I was right about that,I discovered there are lots of other psychological factors that make people laugh other than the funny part of a joke.When someone laughs at a joke,there will usually be more than one reason that makes him laugh—and the more reasons there are,the more powerful the joke will be.
I was attending a stand-up comedy show in Egypt,and when the man started to make fun of pedestrians crossing streets,everyone laughed their heads off.The main reason why those people strongly laughed was that almost all of them felt angry towards pedestrians who crossed streets carelessly.The joke wasn’t only funny,but it also made the audience feel that they were right about being angry at those pedestrians. That is, people were laughing both because of the funny joke and because of the happiness experienced as a result of the psychological support they got.
The better a joke makes a person feel,and the more it includes other psychological factors,the more the person will like it.For example,if you envy one of your friends,and someone tells a joke that is funny and,at the same time,makes your friend seem stupid,then you will probably laugh at it louder than if you weren’t jealous of him.
In short,we don’t laugh only when we hear something funny; we also laugh when we experience some kind of happiness that results from the other psychological factors involved in the joke.I strongly discourage you from making fun of anyone or belittling someone to make someone else laugh.All I want to explain is that if your joke supports a person’s emotions,he will certainly like it a lot.
【解题导语】 本文主要分析了人们笑的原因。
4.What did the author find out after studying psychology?
A.Only good jokes make people laugh.
B.Many factors lead to people’s laughing.
C.Funny things can make people laugh.
D.Laughter can make people healthy.
B 解析:细节理解题。根据第一段第二句可知,作者在学了心理学之后发现,笑不仅仅是因为事情好笑,还有很多其他的心理因素的促成和影响,故选B。
5.Why did the audience laugh loud at the pedestrians?
A.They played a trick on the pedestrians.
B.The pedestrians behaved in a funny way.
C.They could feel the pedestrians’ happiness.
D.Their emotion was approved of by the show.
D 解析:推理判断题。根据第二段最后一句可推知,人们对行人的行为大笑的原因是他们在心理上产生了共鸣,故选D。
6.What does the underlined word“belittling”probably mean?
A.Annoy.   B.Blame.
C.Look down on. D.Make up to.
C 解析:词义猜测题。根据最后一段倒数第二句可推知,动词belittle 和短语make fun of是近义词,结合选项可知,应选C。annoy“使恼怒”;blame“责怪”;look down on“蔑视,瞧不起”;make up to “接近,奉承,补足”。
7.Which of the following best shows the structure of the passage?

B 解析:推理判断题。结合全文可知,第一段导入话题;第二、三段通过具体事例进行分析;根据文章最后一段的开头“In short”可知,最后一段属于总结。由此可知,本文属于总——分——总的结构,符合本文结构的图表是B选项。
C
(2018·福州毕业班适应性练习)No human has set foot on the Moon since 1972. Now,after more than four decades of inactivity,interest in putting humans back on the Moon is finally heating up again. But who will get there first?
CHINA
On 14 December 2013,China successfully landed its Jade Rabbit rover(探测车) on the Moon. It is now working on its next exploration mission. Named Chang’e 4,the mission is scheduled to touch down in the Aitken Basin near the end of 2018. If successful,it will be the first landing on the Moon’s far side.
RUSSIA
Russia plans a manned Moon landing in 2030. It is currently working on a project whose idea is that the landers will explore the south pole of the Moon,exploring for resources such as minerals and water ice to be used to provide for a human outpost(前哨站).
INDIA
Following the success of its Chandrayaan-1 in 2008,India announced a follow-on mission. Chandrayaan-2 was meant to cooperate with Russia. But when the Russians failed to deliver the promised lander in 2013,India decided to go it alone. Chandrayaan-2 is about to be sent up in 2018.
U.S.A.
In December 2018,NASA plans to send up the Exploration Mission 1,an uncrewed test of their Orion astronaut capsule in which the craft will circle around the Moon before returning to Earth. All being well,a crewed capsule will follow in 2023. Should the mission prove a success,the astronauts will be the first humans to see the far side of the Moon with their own eyes since Apollo 17 in 1972.
【解题导语】 本文是一篇说明文,主要介绍了中国、俄罗斯、印度和美国的登月计划。
8.What will China do in its next space mission?
A.Improve its Jade Rabbit rover.
B.Work with other countries.
C.Land Chang’e 4 on the Moon.
D.Explore the south pole of the Moon.
C 解析:细节理解题。根据第二段第三句可知,嫦娥四号将在2018年底降落在月球Aitken Basin地区。据此可知,中国的下一步空间计划是嫦娥四号登月,故C项正确。
9.Why did India try to carry out its follow-on mission alone?
A.It couldn’t find a partner.
B.It didn’t get the lander as planned.
C.The Russians refused to work with India.
D.It planned to launch Chandrayaan-2 in advance.
B 解析:细节理解题。根据第四段第三句可知,由于俄罗斯没能给印度提供着陆器,因此印度决定自己实施登月计划,故B项正确。
10.Which country is interested in resources on the Moon?
A.Russia.   B.China.
C.India. D.U.S.A.
A 解析:细节理解题。根据第三段第二句可知,当前俄罗斯正启动一项工程,其思路是登陆器将探索月球的南极,寻找矿物质和水冰等资源以供人类前哨站使用。故A项正确。
11.What can we know from the text?
A.Russia has built a human outpost on the Moon.
B.China will be the first to see the far side of the Moon.
C.U.S.A. will send a crewed capsule to the Moon in the future.
D.Humans have kept active in exploring the Moon since 1972.
C 解析:推理判断题。根据第五段第二句可知,如果一切顺利,美国将于2023年发送载人太空舱登月。据此可知,美国将在未来实施载人登月计划,故C项正确。
D
(2018·辽宁大连双基测试)For many people, being on the job might just sound like a picnic compared to a day at home filled with housework, meals and childcare.Even for those with a happy family life, home can sometimes feel more taxing than work.
In a new study, researchers at Penn State University found significantly and consistently lower levels of cortisol (皮质醇) released in response to stress, in a majority of subjects when they were at work compared to when they were at home.This was true for both men and women, and parents and people without children.
Both men and women showed less stress at work.But women were more likely to report feeling happier there.Men were more likely to feel happier at home.Experts say there are other reasons why work is less stressful than home for many.“Paid work is more valued in society,”says Sarah Damaske, the lead researcher on the study.“Household work is boring and not particularly rewarding.”
We get better at our job with time and the increased competence means less stress and more rewards.Yet none of us, no matter how long we’ve been doing it, ever truly feels like an expert at parenting or even at marriage.
The support and friendship of co-workers also offer stress relief.At home, meanwhile, stress spreads and accumulates quickly.“That’s the reason why most housewives wish they were the bread earners,” Dr.Damaske says.
Much of the advice to families and couples includes the warning to leave work stress at the office and even to change our mindset from work to home, for example, a walk around the block.The recent findings, though, suggest our home life, not our attitude, might be due for some change.<
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