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2019届高考英语一轮复习练习必修4_Unit1知能演练轻松闯关
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上传日期:2018/11/8  
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2019届高考英语一轮复习练习选修7_Unit1知能演练轻松闯关

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课时练1 阅读理解提速练
 阅读理解
A
(2018·吉林长春七校高三第一次联考)Joseph Goldberger was a doctor for the United States Public Health Service and he was an advocate for scientific and social recognition of the links between poverty and disease. In 1914, Goldberger was asked by U.S. Surgeon General Rupert Blue to study a skin disease that was killing thousands of people in the South. The disease was pellagra(糙皮病).
Goldberger traveled to the state of Mississippi where many people suffered from pellagra. He studied the victims and their families. Most of the people lived a hard life. The doctor came to believe that the disease didn’t pass on from one to another, but was instead related to food. He received permission from the state governor to test this idea at a prison. Prisoners were offered pardons if they took part. One group of prisoners received their usual foods, mostly corn products. A second group ate meat, fresh vegetables and drank milk. Members of the first group developed pellagra. The second group did not.
But some medical researchers refused to accept Goldberger’s idea. For the South, pellagra was more than simply a medical problem. There were other things, including Southern pride.
So Goldberger had himself injected(注射) with blood from a person with pellagra. He also took liquid from the nose and throat of a pellagra patient and put them into his own nose and throat. He even swallowed pills that contained skin from pellagra patients. An assistant also took part in the experiments. So did Goldberger’s wife. None of them got sick.
Joseph Goldberger died of cancer in 1929. He was fifty-five years old. Several years later, researchers discovered the exact cause of pellagra:a lack of vitamin B3 known as niacin.
【解题导语】 本文是一篇记叙文。文章介绍了美国医生Joseph Goldberger研究糙皮病的患病原因的过程。Joseph Goldberger医生的认真、牺牲精神令人感动。
1.Who were easy targets of pellagra according to Goldberger?
A.People in America.
B.People put into prison.
C.People having a poor diet.
D.People touching pellagra patients.
C 解析:细节理解题。根据第二段中的“Most of the people lived a hard life...the disease didn’t pass on from one to another, but was instead related to food.”,再结合Goldberger在监狱进行的实验的内容可知,在Joseph Goldberger看来,糙皮病和食物有关,而且患者大多生活条件差;再结合实验中提到的主要吃玉米制品的犯人最后患上了该病可知,不良的饮食容易导致人们患糙皮病。
2.What did Goldberger want to prove by the experiments mentioned in Paragraph 4?
A.Pellagra wasn’t so terrible.
B.Pellagra didn’t spread.
C.Pellagra could be cured.
D.Pellagra wasn’t a medical problem.
B 解析:推理判断题。根据第二段中提到的Goldberger认为糙皮病不是传染病以及第四段中提到的他为了证明自己的观点而进行的实验的内容(将患糙皮病的人的血液注射到自己的体内、将糙皮病病人的鼻腔和口腔中的液体放入自己的鼻腔和口腔以及吞咽含有糙皮病病人的皮肤组织的药丸)和结果(他没患病)可推知,Goldberger进行实验是为了证明糙皮病不传染。
3.Which words can be used to describe Goldberger?
A.Devoted and determined.
B.Selfless and friendly.
C.Patient and expert.
D.Stubborn and enthusiastic.
A 解析:推理判断题。文中提到的Goldberger在监狱及在他自己身上做实验的内容表明他全心全意地投入到对糙皮病的研究中,有奉献精神;尽管一些人不认可Goldberger的观点,但他仍坚持自己的看法并坚决地去证明自己的观点是正确的,这体现出他意志坚定。故选A。
B
(2018·湖北省武汉市调研测试)Elon Musk was born in South Africa, in 1971. A crazy fan of computers, by the age of twelve, Musk had written the code(代码) for his own video game, which he sold for a profit.
He attended Queen’s University in Canada, and transferred(转到) to the University of Pennsylvania, where he earned two bachelor’s degrees, economics and physics. He was admitted to Stanford University in California, intending to earn a PhD in energy physics.
First Company—Zip2 Corporation
In 1995, at the age of 24, Musk dropped out of Stanford University after just two days of classes to start his first company Zip2 Corporation. It was an online city guide that provided content for the new online versions of The New York Times and the Chicago Tribune newspapers. In 1999, Musk got $ 22 million from the sale of Zip2.
Online Banking
In 1999, Elon Musk started X.com with $ 10 million dollars from the sale of Zip2. X. com was an online bank, and he was credited with inventing a method of securely transferring money using a receiver’s e-mail address.
PayPal
In 2000, X. com bought a company called Confinity, which had started an Internet money-transfer process called PayPal. Elon Musk dropped the online banking focus to concentrate on becoming a global payment transfer provider. In 2002, eBay bought PayPal for $ 1.5 billion.
Space Exploration Technologies
In 2002, Elon Musk started SpaceX. He is a long-standing member of the Mars Society, a non-profit organization that supports the exploration of Mars, and Musk is interested in building a greenhouse on Mars. SpaceX has been developing rocket technologies to enable Musk’s project.
Tesla Motors
In 2004, Elon Musk cofounded Tesla Motors, of which he is the only product architect. Tesla Motors builds electric vehicles. The company has built an electric sports car, the Tesla Roadster.
SolarCity
In 2006, Elon Musk cofounded SolarCity, a photovoltaic(光电的) products and services company with his cousin Lyndon Rive.
【解题导语】 本文是一篇记叙文,主要介绍了埃隆·马斯克的人生经历和伟大成就。
4.What was Elon Musk gifted in when he was young?
A.Economics. B.Physics.
C.Energy. D.Coding.
D 解析:细节理解题。根据第一段的第二句可知,Musk是一位疯狂的电脑迷,十二岁时他就为自己的视频游戏写代码并获利了;据此可知,他小时候就有写代码的天赋,故D项正确。
5.Which of the following provides international payment transfer service?
A.X.com. B.Confinity.
C.PayPal. D.eBay.
C 解析:细节理解题。根据PayPal部分,尤其是该部分的第二句可知,PayPal提供国际转账支付服务,故C项正确。
6.What has SpaceX been doing to help achieve Musk’s project?
A.Sponsoring the Mars Society.
B.Developing rocket technologies.
C.Building a greenhouse on Mars.
D.Supporting the exploration of Mars.
B 解析:细节理解题。根据Space Exploration Technologies部分的“SpaceX has been developing rocket technologies to enable Musk’s project.”可知,SpaceX一直在研究开发火箭技术,帮助Musk实现他的项目(目标),故B项正确。
7.What is Tesla Motors noted for?
A.Its electric vehicles.
B.Its photovoltaic products.
C.Its service as a city tourist guide.
D.Its business with other companies.
A 解析:细节理解题。根据Tesla Motors部分,尤其是该部分的第二句可知,Tesla Motors是生产电动汽车的公司,故A项正确。
C
(2018·东北三省四市教研联合体高考模拟)
Ophelia and the Marvelous Boy by Karen Foxlee
Type:Fantasy
Storyline:
When Ophelia moves to a strange city where it never stops snowing, she discovers a boy locked away for 75 years in a museum. She must help the boy before the Snow Queen freezes the world. Along the way, Ophelia learns how to believe in things she cannot see.
Targeted readers:
People who like fairy tales would enjoy this book.
A Hundred Horses by Sarah Lean
Type: Mystery
Storyline:
The wooden horse Nell brings along during her visits to her aunt and cousins is stolen by a girl named Angel. As Nell finds out Angel’s true identity, a bond grows between them and a group of 99 horses. Word has it that the 100th horse is magical. But where is it? Nell doesn’t know, but Angel might know.
Targeted readers:
Kids who like animals and nature will be sure to find this book exciting.
How to Catch a Bogle by Catherine Jinks
Type: Fantasy
Storyline:
Birdie is an orphan who is good at trapping monsters with her singing voice. She is the only goblin(小妖精) hunter in the world. When kids go missing, it’s up to her to figure out why.
Targeted readers:
Anyone who is looking for monsters will take great pleasure in this book.
I Even Funnier: A Middle School Story by James Patterson and Chris Grabenstein
Type: Fiction
Storyline:
After a car accident Jamie loses his family, and then he moves in with his aunt, uncle and his cousin Stevie, whose basic aim is to trick Jamie. But Jamie keeps having a positive attitude and running after his goals. He was recently honored the Funniest Kid Comic of New York State.
Targeted readers:
This book would be great for anyone who is fond of humorous books.
【解题导语】 本文是一篇应用文。文章介绍了四本书籍,提供了每本书的名称、作者、种类、故事情节和目标读者。
8.Which writer tells a story about a girl saving a boy?
A.Karen Foxlee.
B.Sarah Lean.
C.Catherine Jinks.
D.James Patterson and Chris Grabenstein.
A 解析:细节理解题。根据文章对第一本书的简介,尤其是第二句“She must help the boy before the Snow Queen freezes the world.”可知,在冰雪女王冰冻世界之前Ophelia必须帮助那个男孩逃离,故选A。
9.Nature lovers may take interest in________.
A.Ophelia and the Marvelous Boy
B.A Hundred Horses
C.How to Catch a Bogle
D.I Even Funnier: A Middle School Story
B 解析:细节理解题。根据第二本书对目标读者的描述“Kids who like animals and nature will be sure to find this book exciting.”可知,喜欢动物和自然的孩子一定会发现这本书令人兴奋,故第二本书A Hundred Horses 符合要求,即B项正确。
10.Who went through life challenges without losing heart?
A.Ophelia. B.Nell.
C.Stevie. D.Jamie.
D 解析:细节理解题。根据文章对第四本书的简介中的“But Jamie keeps having a positive attitude and running after his goals.”可知,Jamie在失去父母寄居在亲戚家时依旧保持积极的态度,追求自己的梦想,故选D项。
11.In which section of a newspaper can we find such a passage?
A.Fashion. B.Literature.
C.Business. D.Local news.
B 解析:文章出处题。根据文章是对四本书的介绍可知,这篇文章可能来自报纸的文学版块,即B项正确。
D
(2018·广东佛山检测)Exposed soil isn’t part of nature’s master plan. Good examples where soil is naturally found with no plants growing in are beneath freshly removed trees, or where the ground has been burnt by a land fire. In these situations bare soil isn’t bare for long; within days seedlings(芽) begin to appear and cover the ground. In a few months’ time, the scar is hardly noticeable.
Unlike these natural examples, ploughed(耕犁) fields and freshly dug gardens are obvious examples created by man. But, left to nature, even these bare soils soon turn green with a large number of tiny seedlings. In fields, gardens and on grasslands, roadside and sports fields, along streets and on paths and pavements, we are constantly battling to stop weeds from growing. All we are doing is stop the recovering powers of nature.
Whenever soil is exposed, weeds act like a kind of medicine to reduce the potentially harmful rays of the sun, so the sooner plant growth covers the soil over again, the better.
Weeds also help to improve the fertility(肥沃) of
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